Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is “an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force”. It occurs when an external force impacts the brain, and often is caused by a blow, bump, jolt or penetrating wound to the head.
However, not all blows or jolts to the head cause TBI, some just cause bony damage to the skull, without subsequent injury to the brain. Mild TBI is now more commonly referred to as Concussion
CAUSES OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
- Falls. Falls from bed or a ladder, down stairs, in the bath, and other falls are the most common cause of TBI overall, particularly in older adults and young children.
- Vehicle-related collisions. …
- Violence. …
- Sports injuries. …
- Explosive blasts and other combat injuries.
SYMPTOMS OF TBI
The presentation depends on the areas of the brain which have been damaged.
- Cognitive: amnesia, inability to speak or understand language, mental confusion, difficulty concentrating, difficulty thinking and understanding, inability to create new memories, or inability to recognise common things
- Behavioural: abnormal laughing and crying, aggression, impulsivity, irritability, lack of restraint, or persistent repetition of words or actions
- Whole body: blackout, dizziness, fainting, or fatigue
- Mood: anger, anxiety, apathy, or loneliness
- Speech: difficulty speaking, slurred speech, or impaired voice
- Eyes: dilated pupil, raccoon eyes, or unequal pupils
- Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting
- Visual: blurred vision or sensitivity to light
- Also common: persistent headache, balance disorder, bleeding, bone fracture, bruise, depression, hypertonia, loss of smell, lucid interval, nerve injury, post-traumatic seizure, ringing in ears, or sensitivity to sound.
PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
- Therapeutic exercises
- Manual therapy techniques like mobilisations or manipulations
- Prescription and application of equipment like orthotic or prosthetic devices, mobility aid, wheelchair
- Airway clearance techniques
- Functional training in self-care (ADLs) and home care
- Functional training at work, school, play and leisure activities including community reintegration
- Use of physical agents and other modalities use like hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, cryotherapy.
Visit us at Effective Physiotherapy and Fitness Clinic at this address No 2 D Close, Ajumgobia Street, Kado Estate, Abuja or call +234 811 885 6060,